This site is intended only for healthcare professionals residing in Singapore




Sign InLog Out Our medicinesTherapy areasExplore contentExplore contentEventsMaterialsVideosLet’s connectLet's ConnectContact usPfizer medical information
AMSResist the ResistanceAct now. Act how?Strategy to prevent catastropheSurveil. SurvivePolicy for PurposeBacterial InfectionsBacterial basicsDetection and selectionKnow the negativeThe HAP/VAP recapDispel the MBLPinpoint the positiveGo-to guidelinesFungal InfectionsFungal factsFind the fungiPolice the yeastBehold the mouldFight the fungiViral InfectionsVerdict on virusesResourcesViral Infections



Resist the ResistanceAct now. Act how?Strategy to prevent catastropheSurveil. SurvivePolicy for Purpose
The HAP/VAP recap

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are significant causes of morbidity and mortality for hospitalized patients.1 Of all nosocomial infections, HAP is the leading cause of death and VAP is the most common in the intensive care unit (ICU), accounting for 25% of all infections in that setting.2

Most bacterial cases of HAP/VAP (50–80%) are caused by Gram-negative bacteria. In

particular, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and

Escherichia coli are commonly related to HAP, while isolated Acinetobacter baumannii is

commonly reported in VAP patients.2

With antibacterial resistance on the rise, pneumonia caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria is growing more common. This is making treatment more complicated and is having a detrimental impact on patient outcomes.2


It is vital to identify your HAP/VAP patients at risk of multi-drug resistance, from the onset of

infection.3 In 2016, the IDSA (Infectious Diseases Society of America) and the ATS (American

Thoracic Society) published clinical practice guidelines for the management of these patients, which included risk factors for developing multi-drug resistant forms of each condition:4

Scroll left to view table

Quid ex eo est consecutus? laudem et benivole collegisti, nec segniorem ad modum, quaeso, interpretaris? sicine eos et dolorem ipsum per se ipsam voluptatem, quia consequuntur magni dolores eos, qui dolorem ipsum, quia dolor sit, amet, consectetur, adipisci velit.

Risk factors for multi-drug resistant HAP Risk factors for multi-drug resistant VAP Risk factors for multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas VAP/ HAP
Prior intravenous antibiotics use within 90 days
Prior intravenous antibiotics
use within 90 days
Prior intravenous antibiotics use within 90 days
  Septic shock at time of VAP  
ARDS preceding VAP  
Five or more days of hospitalization prior to the occurence of VAP  
Acute renal replacement therapy prior to VAP onset  

In 2018, ERS, ESICM, ESCMID, and ALAT published clinical guidelines for therapeutic and management strategies for HAP and VAP, outside of multi-drug resistant forms.5

TitleExample Text Review the HAP/VAP risk What to look for

What can we do to combat resistance mediated by metallo-β-lactamase enzymes?

TitleExample Text Dispel the MBL Find out
ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; ATS, American Thoracic Society; HAP, hospital-acquired pneumonia; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia; ICU, intensive care unit; IDSA, Infectious Diseases Society of America; MBL, metallo-β-lactamase.ReferencesModi AR and Kovacs CS. Cleve Clin J Med 2020;87(10):633–639.Assefa M. Pneumonia 2022;14:4.Micek ST et al. Crit Care 2015;19:219Kalil AC et al. Clin Infect Dis 2016;63(5):e61–e111.Torres A et al. ERJ Open Res 2018;4:00028-2018.
Bacterial Infections
PfizerPro AccountPfizerPro Account

To access further materials, resources and receive communication about medicines and vaccines promoted by Pfizer.

Sign inRegisterAccountSign Out

The information provided in this site is intended only for Healthcare Professionals in Singapore. The products discussed herein may have different product labelling in different countries. Pfizer Pte Ltd, Singapore is a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc, a pharmaceutical company committed to helping people improve their health by discovering and developing medicines.

Copyright © 2024 Pfizer Limited. All rights reserved.