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Resist the ResistanceAct now. Act how?Strategy to prevent catastropheSurveil. SurvivePolicy for Purpose
Pinpoint the positive

Bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics is an evolving global crisis. Gram-positive bacteria

include some of the most widespread resistant pathogens, which form serious clinical

challenges.1 Prompt identification of such bacteria can help to enable early, appropriate

therapy and stop the spread of infection.2


In WHO's (World Health Organization) list of bacterial priority pathogens, certain multi-drug

resistant Gram-positive bacteria were highlighted as being of particular concern.

These bacteria are responsible for serious healthcare- and community-associated infections, such as pneumonia and bacteremia:1,3  


•  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are common in both              hospital and community settings.4

  Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) is a major nosocomial pathogen              worldwide, with infections typically presenting in immunosuppressed patients.5

•  β-lactamase-resistant Staphylococcus pneumoniae infections are a serious threat to            global health.6

Read about ways to detect these infections below:4,6,8

MRSA infections4

VRE infections6 β-lactamase-resistant Staphylococcus pneumoniae infections8


• Oxacillin and cefoxitin disc diffusion test

• Oxacillin agar screening test

• Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration for oxacillin and cefoxitin
• Culture – broth or agar, disk diffusion, and E-test
• Immunoassay – e.g. ELISA and lateral flow
• Molecular methods – includes multiplex PCR
• Culture methods
• Detection of the mecA gene – usually the preferred method due to its high sensitivity and specificity • Electrochemical DNA biosensors – assists ELISA and PCR in identifying and quantifying bacteria

• Nucleic acid amplification

• Antigen detection

• Immunochromatographic testing

• PCR methods


When treating infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, there’s no time to wait. Getting the treatment right the first time is critical.9–12

For patients with community-acquired pneumonia, initial treatment failure can lead to 3x higher mortality.9–12 So, when concerns for infections arise, treatment is often initiated empirically – without confirmatory culture results.13

However, inappropriate antibiotic regimens can lead to the development of resistance.2,13

Using diagnostic tools to obtain an accurate antibiotic – promptly – can guide therapy and

improve patient outcomes.2

Data-driven predictions of bacterial infection risk based on patient features could help improve patient outcomes, inform clinical decisions, shorten the duration of unnecessary empiric antibiotic therapy, and enhance antibiotic stewardship efforts.13 For example, predictive modelling could identify patients at low risk for MRSA, thus eliminating their potential exposure to unnecessary anti-MRSA therapy.14



Who is your Gram-positive patient?

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TitleExample Text What to look out for? Find out

What do global bodies say about the management of bacterial infections?

TitleExample Text Go-to-guidelines Read up
DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; ELISA, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; MRSA, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; VRE, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium; WHO, World Health Organization.ReferencesJubeh B et al. Molecules. 2020;25(12):2888.Giuliano C et al. P T 2019;44(4):192–200.World Health Organization. WHO publishes list of bacteria for which new antibiotics are urgently needed. Available at: Accessed August 2023.Pourmand MR. Iran J Microbiol 2014;6(5):341–344.O’Driscoll T and Crank CW. Infect Drug Resist 2015;8:217–230Sfeir MM. Diagnostics (aBasel) 2021;11(12): 2287.Zakaria ND et al. Biosensors (Basel) 2023;13(2):294.Smith MD et al. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47(4):1046–1049.Ott SR et al. Eur Respir J 2012;39:611–618.Lim WS et al. Thorax 2009;64:iii1–55.File TM et al. Clin Infect Dis 2010;51:1395–405Menéndez R et al. Thorax 2004;59:960–965.Eickelberg G et al. J Biomed Inform 2020;109:103540.Shorr AF et al. BMC Infect Dis 2013;13:268.
Bacterial Infections
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